Low level light therapy
Low level light therapy receives increasing interest in the fields of tissue regeneration and wound healing. Several in vivo studies demonstrated the positive effects of LLLT on angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the underlying properties in vitro by comparing the effects of light therapy by light emitting diodes of different wavelengths on endothelial cells in vitro. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with either 475 nm, 516 nm or 635 nm light. Control cells were not illuminated. 2D proliferation was quantified by manual counting. HUVEC migration was analyzed by performing a 2D wound scratch assay and a 3D bead assay. The influence of LLLT on early vasculogenic events was determined in a 3D fibrin co-culture model with adipose-derived stem cells. Stimulation with both red and green pulsed LED light significantly increased HUVEC proliferation and 3D migration. Moreover, HUVEC showed increased 2D migration potential with green light stimulation. The treatment with blue light was ineffective. Several parameters showed that green light was even more potent to stimulate proliferation and migration of endothelial cells than clinically well-established red light therapy. Further studies have to focus on intracellular mechanisms induced by different wavelengths in order to optimize this promising therapy in tissue regeneration.